Artworks Catalogue

The altar of Our Lady of Seven Sorrows in Prepolno (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
Pietà (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
St Ignatius Loyola (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
St John the Evangelist (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
St Mary Magdalene (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
St Francis Xavier  (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)

Location

Croatia, Zagreb County, Prepolno

Chapel of Our Lady of Seven Sorrows (Kapela Majke Božje od Sedam Žalosti)

Roman Catholic Parish of All Saints in Bedenica

Artwork

The high altar of the Chapel of Our Lady of Seven Sorrows in Prepolno

Type

High altar

Dimensions

Height: 695 cm, width: 523 cm, depth: 173 cm

Inscriptions

  1. 1764 (on the predella, behind the tabernacle)

Critical History

The high altar was first mentioned in the text of the canonical visitation in 1771,1 which stated that it had been commissioned by the local community and the local patron Ignacije Kašnar, of whom contemporaries had a very low opinion.2 The parish priest Švagel wrote in 1788 that he had paid the debt "of 20 forints to some painter for painting the high altar".3 The sculptures were attributed to Franz Anton Straub by Doris Baričević on the basis of style resemblance to the work of his brothers.4 Nevertheless, unlike ornamental decoration on other altars attributed to Franz Anton Straub, the subtle ornaments with perforated core and curly attenuate edges are shaped in a way more similar to, for example, that of the high altar in Tugonica, where the sculptures were created by another artist.5 Restoration works revealed the date 1764 written on predella behind the tabernacle, thus correcting the date 1768 mentioned in previous literature. 6 According to the similarity in the concept and execution of marblings to those on the high altar in Tugonica, Podgorje Bistričko and Vinski Vrh, the polychromy might be by the painter Jacob Reißer.7

Construction / Execution

The altar is situated in the chancel, where it occupies the entire rear wall of the apse. There are side openings on both ends. The central niche of the altar architecture is open in order to enable light from the rear window opening to fall on the central figure of the Pietà.

The concept of the polychromy of the retable is based on the contrast between the mat orange marbling and shiny blue-green marbling applied as a glaze on the polished silvered surface. The golden veins indicate the imitation of the lapis lazuli.

Components

Carpentry
Author: Franz Anton Straub (Wiesensteig 1726 – Zagreb ca. 1774)
Completed: 1764
Patron(s): multiple, parishioners; Ignacije Kašnar, noble
Technique(s): sawing
Material(s): wood
Sculpture
Author: Franz Anton Straub (Wiesensteig 1726 – Zagreb ca. 1774)
Completed: 1764
Patron(s): multiple, parishioners; Ignacije Kašnar, noble
Technique(s): wood carving
Material(s): limewood
Polychromy
Author: Jacob Reißer
Completed: 1764
Patron(s): Stjepan Švagel, priest
Technique(s): oil, oil gilding, tempera, water gilding
Material(s): gold leaf, oil colour, red bole, silver leaf, yellow bole
Polychromy
First repolychromy
Polychromy
Second repolychromy
Material(s): beeswax, metallic pigment

Comment

According to conservation documentation the altar was in part repolychromed once8 and in part at least twice.9 The gilding was partially repaired with metallic colours containing copper ("bronze"). The layer of repolychromy is visible on the retable and sculptures on the attic, whereas the five sculptures in the central part of the retable (Pietà, St Francis Xavier, St John the Evangelist, St Mary Magdalene, St Ignatius of Loyola) have been restored to their original polychromy from the 18th century.

Conservation-restoration

1999–2001

Strategy: removing dirt, removing partial repairs

Materials: acetone, Bologna chalk, bone black, bone glue, brown ochre, Champagne chalk, dammar varnish, demineralized water, ethyl alcohol, gold powder, gum arabic, isopropyl alcohol, Klucel G, limewood, petroleum benzine, shellack, skin glue, softwood, watercolours, white spirit

Treatment Description

Emergency preservation works were carried out on site during 1999. In 2001 the tabernacle was transported to the Croatian Conservation Institute, Department in Ludbreg, where reasearch and conservation were executed by four students of the Technical University in Munich (Prof. Erwin Emmerling). The work was supervised by Romana Jagić from the Croatian Conservation Institute.10

2009–2016

Strategy: removing dirt, removing one or several historic repolychromies, removing partial repairs, removing patina, removing varnish

Approach to the presentation of losses

Reintegration of lacunae – mimetic: total

Reconstruction of losses: total

Materials: acetone, ammonia solution, Bologna chalk, demineralized water, gold powder, Grilith Holzkitt, limewood, mastic resin, oil colour, Paraloid B-72, PVA adhesive, rabbit-skin glue, red bole, silver leaf, silver powder, turpentine oil, Vulpex, wood powder, yellow bole

Treatment Description

Conservation works on the attic were carried out in 2009. From 2009 to 2016 five sculptures were restored. All repolychromies were removed, exposing the polychromy from 1764. Restoration works were carried out by the private restorer Nenad Nef.11

Images

  1. The altar of Our Lady of Seven Sorrows in Prepolno (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
  2. Pietà (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
  3. St Ignatius Loyola (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
  4. St John the Evangelist (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
  5. St Mary Magdalene (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)
  6. St Francis Xavier (Croatian Conservation Institute Photo Archive, photo by Goran Tomljenović, 2018)

Catalogue entry prepared by Martina Ožanić, Ksenija Škarić and Martina Wolff Zubović

Recommended citation: Martina Ožanić, Ksenija Škarić and Martina Wolff Zubović, The high altar of the Chapel of Our Lady of Seven Sorrows in Prepolno, in: TrArS – Tracing the Art of the Straub Family, 2018, (accessed 24/09/2021) URL

Sources and Bibliography

  1. Archive of the Archbishopric of Zagreb, Canonical visitations, Kalnik Archdeaconry, protocol 136/VII, 1771
  2. Baltazar Adam Krčelić, Annuae sive Historia ab Anno inclusive 1748 et subsequis 1767 ad posteritatis notitiam /Annuae ili Historija 1748 – 1767, Zagreb, JAZU , 1952 [1767]
  3. Doris Baričević, Članovi kiparske obitelji Straub u Hrvatskoj, in: Peristil. Zbornik radova za povijest umjetnosti, 35–36, Radovan Ivančević (ed.), Zagreb, 1992–1993, 193–218
  4. Lelja Dobronić, Bedenica, Župa Svih Svetih, Bedenica, Župni ured, 1987
  5. Doris Baričević, Barokno kiparstvo sjeverne Hrvatske, Zagreb, 2008
  6. Doris Baričević, Barokno kiparstvo Sv. Ivana Zeline i okolice, in: Sveti Ivan Zelina; osam stoljeća pisane povijesti i kulture, Mladen Houška (ed.), Sveti Ivan Zelina, Matica Hrvatska Sveti Ivan Zelina; Grad Sveti Ivan Zelina, 2000, 61–66
  7. Croatian Conservation Institute, Johanna Lang, Jilka Kyrian, Izvještaj o konzerviranju i restauriranju tabernakla glavnog oltara katoličke filijalne crkve Majke Božje Žalosne, Prepolno, Hrvatska / Bericht über die Konservierung und Restaurierung des Tabernakels vom Hochaltar der kath. Filialkirche zur Schmerzhaften Muttergottes, Prepolno / Kroatien, Ludbreg, 2001
  8. Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia, Conservation Department in Zagreb, Nenad Nef, Skulptura Ivana Evanđelista, oltar Majke Božje Žalosne, crkva Majke Božje Žalosne, Prepolno. Dokumentacija stanja nakon izvedenih konzervatorsko-restauratorskih radova, Zagreb, 2013
  9. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ksenija Škarić, Polikromija i polikromatori oltara 17. i 18. stoljeća u sjeverozapadnoj Hrvatskoj, PhD Thesis, Zagreb, 2014
  10. Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia, Conservation Department in Zagreb, Sv. Franjo Ksaverski, oltar Majke Božje Žalosne, Prepolno. Konzervatorsko-restauratorski radovi, Zagreb, 2014/2015
  11. Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia, Conservation Department in Zagreb, Sv. Igraz, oltar Majke Božje Žalosne, Prepolno. Konzervatorsko-restauratorski radovi, Zagreb, 2015
  12. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Martina Ožanić, Atektonsko građeni oltari XVIII. stoljeća na poručju sjeverozapadne Hrvatske, PhD Thesis, Zagreb, 2017
  13. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Martina Wolff Zubović, Tipologija i podrijetlo ornamentike na drvenim oltarima XVII. i XVIII. stoljeća na području sjeverozapadne Hrvatske: recepcija, primjena i razvoj motiva, PhD Thesis, Zagreb, 2017, URL
  14. Martina Ožanić, Altaristika u opusu Franza Antona Strauba na području sjeverne Hrvatske – geneza motiva, utjecaji, odjeci, in: Peristil, 61, Zagreb, Društvo povjesničara umjetnosti Hrvatske, 2018, 65–87

Notes

1 Canonical visitations, Kalnik Archdeaconry, 136/VII, 1771, 12: "... ara majori cum pijs fidelium eleemosynis, tum etiam laudabili domini Ignatij Kasner, emeriti vicecomitis, illustrata..." (Transcribed by Šime Demo)

2 Baltazar Adam Krčelić, 1952 [1767], 426, 458.

3 Lelja Dobronić, 1987, 38, 42, 43.

4 Doris Baričević, 1992–1993, 215–216; Doris Baričević, 2000, 64–66; Doris Baričević, 2008, 280.

5 Similar ornaments can be found among ornamental motives invented by Georg Michael Roscher and printed in Augsburg by Johann Georg Hertel. Martina Wolff Zubović, 2017, 179–180.

6 Martina Ožanić, 2017, 44, 45, 70, 87. See also Martina Ožanić, 2018, 76–78.

7 Ksenija Škarić, 2014, 182–183.

8 Nenad Nef, 2013.

9 Johanna Lang, Jitka Kyrian, 2001; Croatian Conservation Institute archives in Zagreb and Ludbreg.

10 Ibid.

11 Nenad Nef, 2014, 2014/2015 and 2015.